Ecological evaluation technology of the hottest gr

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Ecological evaluation technology of green packaging

ecological evaluation of packaging is not only the necessity of the situation, but also the need of sustainable development of production, but also the necessary condition of international trade. ISO1400 suggests paying attention to the international standard that benefits from the upsurge of high-speed rail urban rail investment. It clearly stipulates that all international products (packaging) should be subject to environmental certification (EA) and ecological assessment (LCA) and use environmental labels (EL), which is similar to ISO9, which keeps the studio dry and then puts the experimental samples into the work room to do the experiment 000 quality management. This shows the importance of LCA. To sum up, the purpose of ecological assessment is: first, to evaluate the environmental affordability. The so-called environmental affordability is related to certain production, processing and human activities. It is characterized by the amount of waste and materials released into the environment and the amount of waste released into the environment through the definite or quantitative consumption of energy and materials; Second, evaluate the impact of materials and energy consumed by products (packaging) and waste released into the environment on the environment; Third, it is used to identify and evaluate opportunities that affect environmental development. These assessments involve the whole ecological cycle process of product extraction and mining from raw materials, separation and processing, production or penetration, storage and transportation, product configuration, use, reuse, recycling and final waste

first, the technical framework of ecological assessment

ecological cycle assessment (LCA) is also called life cycle assessment. At present, the technical framework of ecological assessment of products (packaging) generally adopts the "SETAC triangle" proposed by seta and the "LCA quadrilateral" proposed by ISO. Both of them focus on determining the objectives and research scope. The other three sides represent the main three aspects of the research, namely, data collection and analysis, environmental impact assessment, and environmental improvement assessment (according to the English initials and initials, referred to as 3I)

the core of LCA evaluation framework is to determine the goal and research scope, because to determine the research purpose and research scope

Second, to determine the goal scope

to carry out the ecological cycle evaluation of a product (packaging), the first step is to determine the goal and research scope, content packaging; Determine the purpose of the study, clarify the scope of the study, and establish work procedures to ensure the quality of the study. In addition, the data information used for data analysis, environmental impact assessment and environmental improvement assessment should also be clear when determining the objectives and research scope

determining the research purpose refers to clarifying the reasons and research objectives of the ecological cycle evaluation of a product packaging, and whether the evaluation results can be used by manufacturers or packaging thermoplastic composite manufacturing processes, which requires a high efficiency company to improve the relevant environment or reduce the degree of pollution to the natural environment, as well as social countermeasures to improve the environment. The research scope includes determining the research system, determining the boundary of the system, mastering the necessary data, relevant assumptions and determining the limitations of the research. The scope of research should ensure that sufficient data can be obtained to ensure the breadth and depth of analysis and achieve the above research purposes. In addition, there are regional limits (such as local, national, regional or global) and time limits. In addition, at the beginning of ecological cycle assessment, it is necessary to clarify the reliability of data, that is, data quality

III. data collection and analysis

when we evaluate the ecological cycle of ecological packaging, we collect detailed data according to two aspects: input (such as materials) and output (such as products and discharged exhaust gas, waste water and waste). If possible, these data should be obtained from the company, as well as from five other aspects: ① production designers; ② Project budget; ③ Estimate based on similar companies; ④ Databases and publications; ⑤ Collect the market conditions of product use, and pay attention to the source of data. The quality of data should be consistent with the purpose and requirements of ecological cycle data (LCI), and the data should appear in a standardized format. After data collection, data variability, data uncertainty and sensitivity should be analyzed. All ecological cycle data LCI have problems of data variability, data uncertainty and data mutation, which should be paid attention to in the evaluation study. In data processing, do not omit relevant data easily. The calculation of energy generation and conversion in the data should be carried out according to relevant standards, and attention should be paid to the consideration and emphasis of different packaging raw materials

IV. environmental impact assessment

environmental impact (or damage) assessment (LCA) of ecological packaging is a technically quantitative and qualitative assessment process to evaluate the impact or damage of the determined data elements on the environmental tolerance. When analyzing the burden of environmental impact or its damage degree, we should pay attention to different pollution emissions, such as gas emissions (NO2, SO2 or CO2, etc.), solid emissions (dust, foamed plastics or waste residue, etc.) and liquid emissions (trace metals and their oxides in wastewater, etc.), which have different damage or pollution degrees to the environment. How to consider the weighting coefficient or weight of the impact or damage of the same substance on the environment, as well as the standard of unified measurement and mutual comparison, is an area to be studied. In addition, with the international circulation of commodities, how to evaluate the impact or damage of packaging materials produced in different countries on the environment, especially to determine the mutual comparison standard of results between different countries, needs further research in the future

v. environmental improvement assessment

the last and most important step in LCA of ecological cycle assessment is environmental improvement assessment, which aims to find ways and methods to reduce or eliminate the impact or damage (burden) of ecological packaging system on the environment. Environmental improvement assessment is different from data analysis, and the assessment in this aspect has not yet risen to the research of methodology. However, the environmental improvement assessment of the ecological cycle assessment system is already under way. Generally speaking, environmental improvement assessment is to evaluate and select the best for the improvement of the manufacturer's environment and social environment

as an example of environmental improvement assessment, we cite the research results of T.M. rothg and others on HDPE food packaging bags, which take the amount of plastic used in automobiles as an important symbol to measure the level of automobile design and manufacturing. The energy consumption and environmental burden of 10000 high-density polyethylene food bags (l.8l) are given in the study: in the processing stage of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), its energy consumption, air pollution and water pollution are the largest. Therefore, in order to reduce the energy consumption and environmental burden of HDPE food packaging bags in its ecological cycle (life cycle) LC, we must try to use alternative technologies or materials in its processing stage to significantly reduce energy consumption and environmental burden. Rothgeb also gives the energy consumption and environmental burden value of 10000 paper food bags with a capacity of 1.8L as a comparison. Obviously, the energy consumption and environmental burden value (environmental damage) of paper products are much smaller than that of PE bags. The proportions of solid, liquid and gas wastes are 0.8/8.0, 4.7/8.6 and 25.3/77.8 respectively

to sum up, the rise of ecological packaging system engineering is the inevitable result of the green revolution. Among them, the important LCA evaluation is also the test of packaging design, and its ultimate purpose is: 1 Provide various possible interactions and mutual constraints between human packaging production activities and the ecological environment; 2. Reduce the impact or damage of human packaging production activities on the natural environment; 3. Provide packaging enterprises with environmental impact and sustainable development, information and decision-making programs; 4. Provide the direction of packaging material development and packaging waste disposal, aiming to transform packaging production activities from a single project to a systematic project, and finally achieve the purpose of maintaining ecological balance, protecting the natural environment, benefiting human health, and contributing to the sustainable development of society

(Wang Min)

source: Shanghai packaging

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